In this paper, we analyze various energy efficient routing protocols to improve the lifetime of wireless sensor networks. WSNs are composed of a large number of sensor nodes which have limited energy. Energy conservation is a very critical issue to design energy efficient routing techniques in wireless sensor networks. The paper reviews the traditional energy efficient protocols to improve cluster head selection approach.
The proposed algorithm considers the sensor nodes residual energy to select optimal cluster head for next round of cluster head selection algorithm. The algorithm guarantees the entire network stays alive for longer time than the other existing energy efficient techniques. The proposed technique thus improves the overall performance of wireless sensor networks in terms of increasing the lifetime of sensor nodes, reducing the bandwidth consumption and latency of WSNs. Also balancing energy distribution among all nodes of the network increases the round number at which the first node dies which reduces the energy holes in WSNs.